Smart Nanomaterials Responsive to Multiple Chemical Stimuli with Controllable Cooperativity

Aptamer-linked smart materials responsive to a combination of any two analytes, including adenosine, cocaine, and K+, are demonstrated. The effect of small molecules on the properties of the nanomaterials can be either highly cooperative or non-cooperative, which can be described as logic gates with chemical inputs and colorimetric output (see figure).

Published online, DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600525